- 12th Century
Chapel dedicated to Our Lady of Pena, or Penha in allusion to the Portuguese word for the huge boulders dotting the top of the hill on which the chapel got constructed.
Beginning of the construction of the Royal Monastery of Our Lady of Pena, funded by King Manuel I. The Monastery is handed over to the Order of Saint Jerome.
Abolition of religious orders in Portugal and the abandoning of the monastery.
Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (King Ferdinand II) marries Queen Maria II.
King Ferdinand II acquires the monastery and its respective grounds in a public auction.
Beginning of restoration work on the monastery.
Beginning of construction on the “New Palace”, undertaken by King Ferdinand and Queen Maria II under the supervision of Baron von Eschwege.
Death of Queen Maria II.
Completion of the mural decoration in the Visitor’s Room and the Main Room.
King Ferdinand meets the opera singer Elise Hensler and begins courting her.
King Ferdinand and Elise Hensler oversee work on the Chalet and the Garden surrounding the western flanks of the Park of Pena.
Acquisition of furniture and textiles for the Noble Hall, the Smoking Room and the Dining House.
Marriage of King Ferdinand II and Elise Hensler, who is bestowed with the title of the Countess of Edla by King Ferdinand’s cousin, the reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Ernest II.
Death of King Ferdinand II. The Palace and Park are left in his will to the Countess of Edla.
Following a judicial process, the Countess agrees to the sale of the Palace and Park of Pena to the state and receiving the lifelong right to reside in and benefit from the Chalet and Garden (which she rescinds in 1904).
Regicide of King Carlos I and the Royal Prince Luís Filipe.
With the declaration of the Republic, the royal family departs for exile with King Manuel II thus becoming the last king to reside in Pena.
The now National Palace of Pena opens to the public as a museum.
UNESCO classifies the hills and historical town of Sintra as World Heritage Cultural Landscape, the first to receive this category in Europe. The Palace and Park of Pena fall within the scope of this classification.
Parques de Sintra takes over the management of the Park of Pena and its adjoining hunting grounds.
Parques de Sintra takes over the management of the National Palace of Pena.